The principal task of neuropharmacology is to take danger out of patients. Danger to society, danger to themselves. Apart from opium, or laudanum, not much neuropharmacology was available in the middle ages. Therefore, for well-dressed but paranoid or schizophrenic noblemen, it was an important valve for their anxieties that they could arrest women or girls, and have them burned alive. Screaming witches just felt good.
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Sex and the Brain. What parts are involved?
Sex is primarily the process of combining male and female genes to form offspring, however over the past billion years complex systems of behaviour (and the motivation and reward circuits that root such behaviours) have evolved around this process and no where is this complexity more elaborately represented than in the human brain. At some point in their life, everyone will engage in sexual behaviour or at least experience sexual desire. Ultimately the brain is the largest sex organ controlling the biological urge, mediating all thoughts, experiences and physiological responses to sex, so 'Where Does Sex Live in the Brain?'.
The article The Brain: Where Does Sex Live in the Brain? From Top to Bottom was published (2009) in the American popular science magazine 'Discover' and provides a brief examination of the neural basis of sex and sexual desire. Written by the general science writer and blogger Carl Zimmer it serves as a brief review of the origins of research into sex and provides a brief summary of modern neuroscience's attempts to pinpoint where sex lives in the brain.
The article begins with the summary of a number of case studies relating to individuals with abnormal manifestations of sexual behaviour related to abnormalities in their brains (e.g spontaneous organisms relating to epilepsy in the temporal lobe and abnormal sexual feelings resulting from brain tumours). Zimmer then moves onto to relay the findings from experimental studies, specifically brain imaging studies (including PET, fMRI and EEG recordings), related to understanding the neural underpinnings of sex.
The article is of interest as it serves to introduce the lay person into the hitherto unexplored neural terrain of sex, and whilst many people are acutely aware of the more obvious physiological manifestations of sexual desire, few are aware of the neurobiological and neuroanatomical mechanisms that underpin it.
1. Neuroscientific Context
Sexual desire is defined as the behavioural drive that motivates individuals to fantasize about or seek out sexual activity. In contrast, sexual arousal is defined as the autonomic physiological processes that prepare the body for sexual activity (Toledano, Pfaus., 2006). It is important to make clear distinctions between the two definitions as confusion can occur due to, the often simultaneous occurrence of both mechanisms (Pfaus., 2009).
Sexual desire is the culmination of several different neural mechanisms, each is controlled in different areas of the brain and is activated at different times of the sexual experience. The euphoric and pleasurable experience of sex stems primarily from the limbic system. The colloquial term for areas including the amygdala, hippocampus and limbic lobe (dentate and cingulate gyrus). This area is common to all mammals and is considered one of the oldest areas of the brain. It regulates emotion and encourages the avoidance of painful of aversive stimuli and the repetition of pleasurable experiences.
From a physiological perspective sexual arousal is controlled by the parasympathetic portion of the autonomic nervous system and manifests itself as vasodilation in sexual organs along with several other physiological phenomena including an increase in heart rate. An orgasm and in particular male ejaculation is controlled by the sympathetic portion, this is also accompanied by deactivation of many areas in the brain relating to external stimuli in particular fear, allowing the mind to focus on the task at hand.
1.1 Testosterone and Oestrogen
Sexual desire is initially modulated by the release of sex hormones, for males testosterone and for females oestrogen, our levels of these hormones are understood to affect our behaviour. Recent studies how found that male testosterone levels increase by approximately 7.8% in males even though they do no consider her attractive. (van der Meij, 2011)
Testosterone, a member of the androgen family of steroids, is secreted in the testes of males and the ovaries of females as well as small amounts from adrenal glands. Arousal causes the cerebral cortex to signal the hypothalamus to stimulate the production of testosterone, the production is regulated by a complex chain of events known as the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis; Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) is secreted by the hypothalamus, via the hypophyseal portal system, it travels to the anterior pituitary which then releases luteinizing hormone (LH) in order to stimulate the production of testosterone in the testes. Production levels are controlled by negative feedback.
Luteinizing hormones also stimulate the production of oestrogen in the ovaries, some oestrogens are also produced in other tissues such as the liver and adrenal glands. In females, oestrogen synthesis begins in cells in the ovaries by the synthesis of androstenedione, this compound then travels into the surrounding granulosa cells of the basal membrane where it is converted to oestrone or oestradiol, testosterone is also converted to oestradiol at this point.
Prior to the physical stimulation, comes sexual desire. Largely mediated by emotion through the limbic system, activation of the amygdala can trigger penile erection, sexual feelings,(Georgiadis and Holstege, 2005) sensations of extreme pleasure (Olds and Milner, 1954), memories of sexual intercourse (Gloor, 1986), as well as ovulation, uterine contractions, and orgasm.
The amygdala is sexually differentiated, males on average have a 16% larger cortico-medial area which is the area responsible for steroid uptake, specifically the male and female sex hormones testosterone and oestrogen. These are known to produce sex specific behaviours (Rhawn J, 2004). Males more then females, were found to have greater amygdala activation when presented with a sexually pleasing, visual stimuli (Hamann et al., 2004).
An increased density of enkephalins and opiate receptors can be also found in amydala. When experiencing a craving for pleasure inducing drugs these receptors becomes active. (Childress et al, 1999). This gives the amydala an ability to inducing extreme feelings of pleasure as well as motivating pleasure seeking behaviour.
Several case studies of subjects with lesions or tumors in areas proximal to the amygdala illustrated aggressive tendencies, became sexually preoccupied and experienced hyper religiosity thoughts similar to Kluver Bucy syndrome. (Devinsky, Sacks and Devinsky, 2010).
The amydala projects through three pathways to many areas of the brain, the stria terminalis, the amydalofugal pathway and the anterior commisure.These pathways influence hormonal and somatomotor aspects of behaviour and also emotional states. There is also increasing evidence that the central nucleus of the amygdala is responsible for pheromone detection given a large number of olfactory projections.
The amygdalofugal pathway connects the corticomedian nuclei of the amygdala with the thalamus, median hypothalamus, brain stem and nucleus accumbens. This pathway is thought to be responsible for pleasurable feelings. The stria terminalis has projections to and from the hypthothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and is thought to mediate threat monitoring and the stress response. It is thought to be responsible for sympathetic nervous system activation. The anterior commisure serves to connect the left and right amygdala. In a 1992 (Allen and Gorski) study it was thought to correlate to the sexual orientation of an individual as it was posited that male homosexuals had a anterior commisure more similar to a womans however this yet to be adequately supported by evidence.
1.3 Ventral striatum
Input travels from the basolateral nuclei of the amygdala along the amygdalofugal pathway to the ventral striatum, made up of the nucleus accumbens, putamen and parts of the caudate nucleus. The nucleus accumbens plays a role in pleasure and reward due to a large large of dopaminergic neurons from the VTA (ventral tegmental area).
Gert Holstege (2003) using Positron Emission Tomography measured cBF in males during orgasm and found "primary activation was found in the mesodiencephalic transition zone, including the ventral tegmental area......Parallels are drawn between ejaculation and heroin rush."
1.4 Orbitofrontal Cortex
The orbital frontal cortex (OFC) is located on ventrally along the frontal skull and superior to the orbits of the eye. The OFC has a large network of connections that project to a variety of areas in the brain, examples include; all somatosensory modalities, hippocampus, ventral tegmental axis and amygdala. The OFC has structural variability amongst individuals, three sub types have been identified; each sub-types contain different sulci locations (Kringelbach, Rolls., 2004). This is significant as disorders could potentially be linked to genetic factors due to the differences in each subtype.
In contrast to many other cortical regions, the OFC is still poorly understood. Currently it is understood that higher cognitive functions occur in this area, in particular, sensory integration "representing the affective value of reinforcers in expectation" and judgements based on reward and punishment (Kringelbach., 2005)
In terms of sexual desire, the OFC is thought to mediate reward and punishment and personal assessment, however. This relates to mate selection to whether an individual is perceived as desirable (Spinella., 2007). Evidence through studies into facial attractiveness and those involving males presented with a sexually attractive visual stimuli both support the OFC involvement in this role (O’Doherty et al., 2003, Stoleru.,2003).
Representing the reward value of sensory stimuli, beautiful faces andthe affective value of reinforcers in expectation (Ishai, 2007). The OFC is responsible for the disassociation of rewarding, adaptive value of a face can be disassociated from that of an aesthetically pleasing one. In effect mediating beauty for members of the opposite sex. Other functions of the OFC also include managing expectation, particularly based on memories modulated by projections from the hippocampus. These decisions, emotional states and perceived consequences are then used to modulate sexual desire and its related physiological responses
Patients with non functioning neurons in the medial orbitofrontal cortex were shown in several studies to have an increased sex drive and an inability to control their response to sexual stimuli, in extreme cases leading to hyper sexuality, drug use, gambling and an inability to empathise.
1.5 Vagus Nerve
Barry Komisaruk and Beverly Whipple researched the phenomenon that is the orgasm in women, notably those who suffer from spinal cord injuries, to determine if there is a neural pathway from the genitals to the brain. In studies that included both upper level injuries (i.e. injuries that have affected T10 and above) and lower level injuries (i.e. injuries that have affected below T10) it was shown that it was possible for these women to perceive sensations in response to self stimulation of their genitalia. Along with this evidence, the women also reported discomfort during their menstrual cycle and those who were pregnant perceived uterine contractions. It was proposed that these sensations were taking a path to the brain that does not go via the spinal cord, that is the Vagus nerves.
The Vagus nerve is known to lead to the Nucleus Tractus Solitarii (NTS) in the Medulla Oblongata. Using Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) Komisaruk and Whipple implemented a prior experiment (a sweet-salty-sour-bitter taste test) to stimulate the NTS to show its activation pattern. It was hypothesised that with self stimulation the NTS would activate, thus showing that the Vagus nerves are the path taken to the brain, bypassing the spinal cord (Whipple, 2008). Following this stimulation of the brain via the vagus nerve during orgasm there was a difference in activity between preorgasm and orgasm. Areas of activation during and after orgasm include the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN), midbrain central gray, amygdala, hippocampus, anterior cingulate, frontal, parietal, temporal and insular cortices, anterior basal ganglia, and cerebellum (Whipple, 2008). Although this may be the explanation for female orgasms, there is no evidence to suggest that this is the case for males.
Sexual disorders involve a change in sexual desire, sexual orientation and/or ability to orgasm due to damage related to respective neural areas. The two main disorders relating to sexual desire are hyposexual desire disorder (HSDD) and hypersexuality.
Sexual disorders can occur in isolation or can occur alongside a change in general behaviours (Baird et al., 2007). The causes of sexual desire disorders vary, but some may include a decrease in the production of oestrogen in woman or testosterone in both men and women, while others are related to physical damage to neuroanatomical structures.
Hypoactive Sexual Disorder (HSDD) is characterised in an individual by low to zero levels in desire for sexual activity or sexual fantasy without cause from drug abuse or medical conditions (with the exception of sexual dysfunction (Beck., 1995) Abnormality in either the medial orbitofrontal cortex (Stoleru et al., 2003) or damage to particular limbic structures can cause HSDD to occur (Baird et al., 2007). In males, greater activation of the gyrus rectus within the medial orbitofrontal cortex while observing sexually visual pictures have been been strongly linked to HSDD (Stoleru et al., 2003). Other causes of HSSD usually involve bilateral damage of hypothalamus or bilateral damage of the temporal lobes, including the amygdala (Baird et al.,2007).
Hypersexuality can be considered to be the opposite to hypoactive sexual disorder, however this is insufficient for a definition (Kaplan., 2010). What constitutes as too much sex? This question is difficult to answer, however a definition can be constructed based on what is characterised as hypersexuality, according to the DSM-V manual. Hypersexuality can be defined as; an increased desire for sex that creates a negative impact in meeting social commitments and or personal development in the suffering individual (Kafka., 2009).
Evidence has been found that hypersexuality occurs more often in those that suffer lesions in the right hemisphere of the brain as opposed to the left hemisphere (Suffren et al., 2011), even though these particular hypersexuality cases are rare. The lesions are located in the temporal lobe. It has to be noted that this hypersexual activity was not exhibited by any of the patients prestroke and this condition is not gender specific (Monga et al., 1986), however there are far more cases in males than in females. Dopaminergic agonists that are used to treat diseases such as Parkinson's Disease have also been known to cause hypersexual characteristics in about 4% of patients. This could be due to the increased interaction between dopamine and dopaminergic receptors increasing the activity (Park and Stacy, 2011).
Dean Hamer a scientist at the cancer institute published a book titled the science of desire exploring correlations between genetic factors and people's sexual preferences. Controversially he found genetic predictors of homosexuality, increased "risk taking" behaviour related to dopamine genes and high levels of sexual desire due to the anxious form of the serotonin trantroporter gene.
2. Analysis of Quality
The article was published in the general science magazine 'Discover' magazine and the prevalence of simplified concepts, condensed findings and accessible language suggests thats its target readership is the general public. Although it lacks the technical detail and subject expertise of a journal article, it does accomplish in providing a context and conveying many nuanced neuroscience concepts in understandable terms without over simplifying them. This allows a non-proffesional reader to engage in the article without having to have any prior knowledge. The title 'Where does sex live in the brain? From top to bottom' is perhaps a slight sensationalism (there is nothing in the article that comes close to a coherent answer as to where sex 'lives' in the brain), however the body of the article is not as ambitious as the title, and tends to remain objective. Hence the neuroscientific quality of Zimmer article is very much reliant on the merit of the studies which he refers to. The studies he refers to are all well substantiated and reputable, however he has selected a rather narrow range of studies and failed to include a large body of work in his article. This is failure of acknowledgment is perhaps due to practical constraints (i.e. not having enough time or space to adequately summarise the entire body of neuroscientific inquiry into sex and sexual desire).
The author does not present any information as his own but instead tends to simply relay the findings from published neuroscientific studies. As with many emerging fields within neuroscience there is much uncertainity and the author does well not purvey a false sense of absolutism or certainty, instead he hedges his language with caution (e.g. 'may indicate', 'perhaps means', 'suspects that') and is careful to disclaim any data or conclusions as conclusive (e.g. 'we still have a lot to learn about sex', 'many details of how it unfolds still quite obscure'). Furthermore, the eclectic structure of Zimmer's article does well to emphasise that the research on this topic is coming from different perspectives and from different labs, and that perhaps contrary to public belief scientific progress is a rather steady and fragmented process. Zimmer fails to draw any 'unified' conclusions about 'where sex is in the brain', however perhaps this incoherence is ultimately a reflection on the state of the neuroscience in relation to sexual desire, rather than on the quality of his authorship.
3.1 Search strategy
From the general readings of members of the group, several interesting articles that had been recently read were initially debated and subsequently discarded before settling upon one discussing the neurological benefits of running.
On the date of article submission, several members of the group felt a more entertaining topic for further study could be found. After searching through several respected journals and blogs looking for articles related to oxytocin it was decided that the neuroscience of sex would be both unusual, interesting and the prevalence of articles discussing it would allow for a solid choice.
Ultimately the article was chosen for several reasons, the respectability of the Discover magazine, the obvious neuroscience references and the curiosity that it piqued among members.
The search for background validation of the article focused on peer reviewed journals, as peer reviewed journals are generally the most reliable and objective source of evidence driven information. However on occasion pop articles were consulted that referenced cutting edge work being done as in the case of Holstege fMRI of couples having sex.
Charlotte, North Carolina: DETERMINATION OF BIOACTIVE COMPOUNDS IN ROOTS OF DIFFERENT AGES PUERARIA MIRIFICA, AIRY SHAW SUVATABHANDHU AND BUTEA SUPERBA, ROXB. FROM VARIOUS LOCATIONS IN THAILAND
Edward A. Winters 2763 Broadcast Drive Charlotte, NC 28211
Bioactive compounds from roots of White Kwao Krua (Pueraria mirifica) and Red Kwao Krua (Butea superba) extracted by organic solvents were determined from HPLC fingerprints and compared with standard isoflavonoids (puerarin, daidzein and genistein). Roots of White Kwao Krua from Chiang Mai province harvested at the age of 6 y old gave the highest amounts of puerarin, daidzein and genistein at 290, 89 and 16 mg/kg of the dried root respectively. Roots that were younger or older than 6 y old appeared to contain less amount of active compounds. Red Kwao Krua from Chiang Mai had the highest amount of the active compounds. Puerarin contents in Red Kwao Krua were lower whereas daidzein and genistein were greater than those found in White Kwao Krua. The contents of puerarin, daidzein and genistein in Red Kwao Krua from Chiang Mai were 1.9, 37.2 and 4.5 mg/kg of the dried root respectively. For miroestrol contents, the highest amount of 45.0 mg/kg of the dried root was found in White Kwao Krua collected from Chiang Mai province at the age of 5.5 y old. No miroestrol could be determined from roots of Red Kwao Krua. This study suggested that both isoflavonoids and miroestrol contents in the two plants depended on ages and locations of cultivation in Thailand. Information from this study can be applied for the selection of sources and ages of the plants that contain high amounts of the bioactive compounds for herbal formulations.
Cape Girardeau, Missouri: A Soul Lost in the Land of the Rising Sun
William C. Swank 4860 Maple Court Cape Girardeau, MO 63701
No Ordinary Pedophile: Japan’s Idolization of Children
Ten years ago, on Thanksgiving day 2006, a Japanese auto executive was quietly taken into custody on charges of molestation and possession of child pornography. Under a mountain of evidence discovered in a false ceiling within a closet and captured on a USB his daughter plucked from a hidden camera in her bathroom, “Mr. Right” pled guilty, mysteriously vanishing from the automotive scene. Pedophiles exist everywhere, but this was no ordinary perve. ???Stacy Gleiss met her Japanese husband when she was just sixteen. She had spent the summer of 1980 in Tokyo on a youth exchange when she encountered “Right Man” in Narita airport. The 22-year old was on his way to study in the US when he all but inserted himself into Stacy’s world. Two years later she was his teen bride; the wife an only son and heir to a 500 year-old estate on the remote island of Sado.
Over the next few years, both in Michigan and in Japan the former Mrs. Right was trained to become the perfect Japanese wife. During her “bonsai years,” as she likes to call them, she was pruned and shaped by shame and fits of violence– her speech, dress, and mannerisms effectively regressing to reflect a more child-like essence.?? It wasn’t until Gleiss was several years into her marriage that she found evidence that she was dealing with more than a controlling husband.
As the former Mrs. Right recalls, ??“In 1986 while living on Sado, I discovered my husband was some sort of Japanese version of Peter Pan. Carefully tucked under his futon mattress were three paperbacks containing fanciful photos of very young nude girls– innocent erotica. When confronted my husband advised that they were ‘fantasy, art, and nothing more,” adding that the materials were legally obtained; purchased at the local newsstand. Gleiss thought at the time, “What have I gotten myself into? After nearly six years in the culture how could I have missed this?”
What Gleiss hadn’t overlooked was that all around her little girl cuteness was idolized and mimicked as the preferred style for young women and she had followed suit. By her husband’s training she had become soft-spoken and demure. Essentially regressing in mind and body– her nearly six-foot frame fitting into the perfect Japanese size “M.” ??Japan’s idolization of young girls, a trend that began in the 1980’s and has expanded throughout the world, is most often symbolized by the cute schoolgirl uniform-look popularized by the anime (animation) “Sailor Moon.”
Reminiscing about her days in Japan, Gleiss said “Electric Town, Tokyo’s Akihabara district, was once a place where we shopped for boom boxes and the latest Sony Walkman, but today it is filled with anime, manga (Japanese comics) and cosplay (costumes for teens and young adults). It’s all fantasy…most of it innocent, but some of it crosses a line foreigners may recognize but often dismiss on cultural grounds.”
Gleiss worries that modern Japanophiles do not truly grasp the cultural underpinnings of what they are buying and watching today. “Mr. Right wasn’t your average pedophile. Child pornography was legal to manufacture in Japan until 2011 and to possess until 2014. Sexually graphic anime and manga involving youthful characters in school uniforms is protected as freedom of expression both in Japan and the US.” ??While Gleiss admits there are plenty of wonderful animation and comics coming out of Japan, parents and fans alike should be aware of the cultural context surrounding the materials they are watching and buying.
“When the sexually graphic or even titillating content featuring children is readily available, it normalizes what would otherwise be considered taboo.” Gleiss explains, “In Japan teenage girls desperate for money and attention sell their time for walks or conversation…putting themselves in precarious situations that can easily lead to sexual acts. Add to this the fact that Japan is a country where molestation is rarely reported and victim services are sorely lacking and opportunity abounds.”
Gleiss cannot say for sure that molestation is more common in Japan than elsewhere as data is sorely lacking, but it would not be surprising that victims would come out of the woodwork if public disclosure were more common. She is painfully aware that the reporting of such incidents is often discouraged by Japanese family members to avoid bringing shame. Her ex mother-in-law, still living in Japan, will not even mention her granddaughter’s name. “It is apparent to me from several conversations that she is blaming the victim for allowing the abuse to occur and angry that her son was reported vs. allowing the matter to be handled internally.”
More and more Gleiss thinks the tide will turn for Japan– at least she hopes it will. “In 2009 when I first began to put the pieces of our story together I Googled ‘pedophillia in Japan’ and was shocked to find child porn was still legal. At the time I reached out to several scholars on the culture and could not find one researching the negative effects of child erotica normalization, but laws regarding child porn have changed and now I’m starting to see a few articles and research papers on virtual characters as well. It’s a good sign.”
It has been more than a decade since Mr. Right was taken from his suburban home to the County jail and he remains incarcerated to this day. Gleiss, who has returned to her American roots, still cannot forget what occurred during her 21-year infatuation with Japan. “Those root-bound days of my bonsai years, those days when I was essentially forced to be a child…have never left me and they never will.” ??? To put all that occurred into perspective she has written a book detailing her years in the culture as a wife, mother, and later interpreter. She hopes her personal account of living inside a culture that idolizes, and often overtly sexualizes, schoolgirls opens a few eyes.
“Those that love what is often termed the “cutie” culture of Japan need to understand how the popularity of such imagery can cause girls and young women to hide their own character and personal strengths” which she says often continues until a girl becomes a mother and loses her child-like appeal for good– something she experienced as her husband began to treat her more harshly in her late twenties…an age he considered “old.” Gleiss says, “For the love of Japan, girls need a real voice– their own style…not some idealized, comic-like version.”
Gleiss serves as an activist/advocate for a national organization called “Stop the Silence” which educates and encourages victims to speak publicly about their abuse. You can find Gleiss’ redemptive story “The Six-Foot Bonsai: A Soul Lost in the Land of the Rising Sun” on Amazon (LINK).
Harrison, Arkansas: Underage sex now ‘normal part of growing up’ in Britain
Kenneth J. Mager 1178 Rosebud Avenue Harrison, AR 72601
Children are increasingly at risk of being sexually abused because underage sex has become “a normal part of growing up” in the UK, a new report argues. The Family Education Trust says health and social agencies are increasingly taking it for granted that children under the age of 16, Britain’s legal age of consent, are engaging in sexual activities.
The report said the “expectation” of underage sex is leaving children vulnerable to abuse and exploitation, as health and social workers fail to ask individuals about their partners.
“Relaxed attitudes towards underage sex has led to what can only be described as a paralysis in child protection agencies as far apart as Rochdale in the north, Torbay in the south, Thurrock in the east and Liverpool in the west,” said Norman Wells, who is the director of the trust and author of the report, the Daily Mail reports.
Speaking on TalkRadio on Monday, Wells said the trust is calling for a ban on providing contraception and sex advice to those under the age of 16 because they are encouraging underage people to have sex.
TalkRadio presenter Julia Hartley-Brewer challenged Wells’ claim, arguing that without contraception there would be more teenage pregnancies and diseases spread.
“I’m thinking realistically we are going to have an awful lot more of sexually transmitted diseases and a lot more unwanted pregnancies, rather than a lot less underage sex," Hartley-Brewer said.
The research follows reports that young girls are being exploited and groomed by older men after being failed by police and social services.
It looked into seven serious case reviews, including alleged abuse in Bristol, Oxfordshire, and Rotherham, that took place over the past four years.
It found a common tendency of social and health agencies to refrain from asking young people about underage sex for fear of sounding judgmental, meaning any signs of abuse inevitably go undisclosed.
The report claimed, in the case of Rochdale, underage sex went “unchallenged” and “many young people were placed at risk of sexual exploitation” because reducing the number of teenage pregnancies was the main priority for agencies.
In one case, no action was taken after a 14-year-old girl informed a crisis intervention team that a 21-year-old man had made her pregnant.
“Even though the normalization of underage sex has been identified repeatedly in the serious case reviews as a reason for the complacency of child protection agencies, there is no indication of a willingness to address these underlying issues either at the local or the national level,” Wells said.
Professor David Paton of Nottingham University Business School called the 152-page report “utterly damning,” while warning against promoting a culture of “confidentiality.”
“A clear picture emerges of a culture in which underage sexual activity has come to be viewed as a normal part of growing up and seen as relatively harmless as long as it is consensual,” Paton was reported saying in the Daily Mail.
“An unhealthy emphasis on confidentiality has been used too often as an excuse to exclude parents who might have been in a position to help stop the abuse at an earlier stage,” he added.
The report calls for new guidelines giving “explicit recognition to the role of parents,” as well as a review of the Crown Prosecution Service guidance so that “due rigour is restored to the law on the age of consent.”
America and Europe are evil. Let them self-destruct by fostering sexual hatred. They will kill each other, and the system will kill itself.
Carlisle, Pennsylvania: The ‘sex slave’ scandal that exposed pedophile billionaire Jeffrey Epstein
Ralph E. Shaw 264 Simpson Avenue Carlisle, PA 17013
In 2005, the world was introduced to reclusive billionaire Jeffrey Epstein, friend to princes and an American president, a power broker with the darkest of secrets: He was also a pedophile, accused of recruiting dozens of underage girls into a sex-slave network, buying their silence and moving along, although he has been convicted of only one count of soliciting prostitution from a minor. Visitors to his private Caribbean island, known as “Orgy Island,” have included Bill Clinton, Prince Andrew and Stephen Hawking.
According to a 2011 court filing by alleged Epstein victim Virginia Roberts Giuffre, she saw Clinton and Prince Andrew on the island but never saw the former president do anything improper. Giuffre has accused Prince Andrew of having sex with her when she was a minor, a charge Buckingham Palace denies.
“Epstein lives less than one mile away from me in Palm Beach,” author James Patterson tells The Post. In the 11 years since Epstein was investigated and charged by the Palm Beach police department, ultimately copping a plea and serving 13 months on one charge of soliciting prostitution from a 14-year-old girl, Patterson has remained obsessed with the case.
“He’s a fascinating character to read about,” Patterson says. “What is he thinking? Who is he?”
Patterson’s new book, “Filthy Rich: A Powerful Billionaire, the Sex Scandal That Undid Him, and All the Justice That Money Can Buy,” is an attempt to answer such questions. Co-authored with John Connolly and Tim Malloy, the book contains detailed police interviews with girls who alleged sexual abuse by Epstein and others in his circle. Giuffre alleged that Epstein’s ex-girlfriend Ghislaine Maxwell, daughter of the late media tycoon Robert Maxwell, abused her. Ghislaine Maxwell has denied allegations of enabling abuse.
Epstein has spent the bulk of his adult life cultivating relationships with the world’s most powerful men. Flight logs show that from 2001 to 2003, Bill Clinton flew on Epstein’s private plane, dubbed “The Lolita Express” by the press, 26 times. After Epstein’s arrest in July 2006, federal tax records show Epstein donated $25,000 to the Clinton Foundation that year.
Epstein was also a regular visitor to Donald Trump’s Mar-a-Lago, and the two were friends. According to the Daily Mail, Trump was a frequent dinner guest at Epstein’s home, which was often full of barely dressed models. In 2003, New York magazine reported that Trump also attended a dinner party at Epstein’s honoring Bill Clinton.
Last year, The Guardian reported that Epstein’s “little black book” contained contact numbers for A-listers including Tony Blair, Naomi Campbell, Dustin Hoffman, Michael Bloomberg and Richard Branson.
In a 2006 court filing, Palm Beach police noted that a search of Epstein’s home uncovered two hidden cameras. The Mirror reported that in 2015, a 6-year-old civil lawsuit filed by “Jane Doe No. 3,” believed to be the now-married Giuffre, alleged that Epstein wired his mansion with hidden cameras, secretly recording orgies involving his prominent friends and underage girls. The ultimate purpose: blackmail, according to court papers.
“Jane Doe No. 3” also alleged that she had been forced to have sex with “numerous prominent American politicians, powerful business executives, a well-known prime minister, and other world leaders.”
“The reader has to ask: Was justice done here or not?”
Epstein, now 63, has always been something of an international man of mystery. Born in Brooklyn, he had a middle-class upbringing: His father worked for the Parks Department, and his parents stressed hard work and education.
Epstein was brilliant, skipping two grades and graduating Lafayette High School in 1969. He attended Cooper Union but dropped out in 1971 and by 1973 was teaching calculus and physics at Dalton, where he tutored the son of a Bear Stearns exec. Soon, Epstein applied his facility with numbers on Wall Street but left Bear Stearns under a cloud in 1981. He formed his own business, J. Epstein & Co.
The bar for entry at the new firm was high. According to a 2002 profile in New York magazine, Epstein only took on clients who turned over $1 billion, at minimum, for him to manage. Clients also had to pay a flat fee and sign power of attorney over to Epstein, allowing him to do whatever he saw fit with their money.
Still, no one knew exactly what Epstein did, or how he was able to amass a personal billion-dollar-plus fortune. In addition to a block-long, nine-story mansion on Manhattan’s Upper East Side, Epstein owns the $6.8 million mansion in Palm Beach, an $18 million property in New Mexico, the 70-acre private Caribbean island, a helicopter, a Gulfstream IV and a Boeing 727.
“My belief is that Jeff maintains some sort of money-management firm, though you won’t get a straight answer from him,” one high-level investor told New York magazine. “He once told me he had 300 people working for him, and I’ve also heard that he manages Rockefeller money. But one never knows. It’s like looking at the Wizard of Oz — there may be less there than meets the eye.”
“He’s very enigmatic,” Rosa Monckton told Vanity Fair in 2003. Monckton was the former British CEO of Tiffany & Co. and confidante to the late Princess Diana. She was also a close friend of Epstein’s since the 1980s. “He never reveals his hand .?.?. He’s a classic iceberg. What you see is not what you get.”
Both profiles intimated that Epstein had a predilection for young women but never went further. In the New York magazine piece, Trump said Epstein’s self-professed image as a loner, an egghead and a teetotaler was not wholly accurate.
“I’ve known Jeff for 15 years,” Trump said. “Terrific guy. He’s a lot of fun to be with. It is even said that he likes beautiful women as much as I do, and many of them are on the younger side. No doubt about it — Jeffrey enjoys his social life.”
Three years after that profile ran, Palm Beach Police Officer Michele Pagan got a disturbing message. A woman reported that her 14-year-old stepdaughter confided to a friend that she’d had sex with an older man for money. The man’s name was Jeff, and he lived in a mansion on a cul-de-sac.
Pagan persuaded the woman to bring her stepdaughter down to be interviewed. In his book, Patterson calls the girl Mary. And Mary, like so many of the other girls who eventually talked, came from the little-known working-class areas surrounding Palm Beach.
A friend of a friend, Mary said, told her she could make hundreds of dollars in one hour, just for massaging some middle-aged guy’s feet. Lots of other girls had been doing it, some three times a week.
Mary claimed she had been driven to the mansion on El Brillo Way, where a female staffer escorted her up a pink-carpeted staircase, then into a room with a massage table, an armoire topped with sex toys and a photo of a little girl pulling her underwear off.
Epstein entered the room, wearing only a towel, Mary said.
“He took off the towel,” Mary told Pagan. “He was a really built guy. But his wee-wee was very tiny.”
Mary said Epstein got on the table and barked orders at her. She told police she was alone in the room with him, terrified.
Pagan wrote the following in her incident report:
“She removed her pants, leaving her thong panties on. She straddled his back, whereby her exposed buttocks were touching Epstein’s exposed buttocks. Epstein then turned to his side and started to rub his penis in an up-and-down motion. Epstein pulled out a purple vibrator and began to massage Mary’s vaginal area.”
Palm Beach assigned six more detectives to the investigation. They conducted a “trash pull” of Epstein’s garbage, sifting through paper with phone numbers, used condoms, toothbrushes, worn underwear. In one pull, police found a piece of paper with Mary’s phone number on it, along with the number of the person who recruited her.
On Sept. 11, 2005, detectives got another break. Alison, as she’s called in the book, told Detective Joe Recarey that she had been going to Epstein’s house since she was 16. Alison had been working at the Wellington Green Mall, saving up for a trip to Maine, when a friend told her, “You can get a plane ticket in two hours .?.?. We can go give this guy a massage and he’ll pay $200,” according to her statement to the police.
Alison told Recarey that she visited Epstein hundreds of times. She said he had bought her a new 2005 Dodge Neon, plane tickets, and gave her spending money. Alison said he even asked her to emancipate from her parents so she could live with him full-time as his “sex slave.”
She said Epstein slowly escalated his sexual requests, and despite Alison’s insistence that they never have intercourse, alleged, “This one time .?.?. he bent me over the table and put himself in me. Without my permission.”
Alison then asked if what Epstein had done to her was rape and spoke of her abject fear of him.
An abridged version of her witness statement, as recounted in the book:
Alison: Before I say anything else .?.?. um, is there a possibility that I’m gonna have to go to court or anything?
Recarey: I mean, what he did to you is a crime. I’m not gonna lie to you.
Alison: Would you consider it rape, what he did?
Recarey: If he put himself inside you without permission .?.?. That, that is a crime. That is a crime.
Alison: I don’t want my family to find out about this .?.?. ’Cause Jeffrey’s gonna get me. You guys realize that, right? .?.?. I’m not safe now. I’m not safe.
Recarey: Why do you say you’re not safe? Has he said he’s hurt people before?
Alison: Well, I’ve heard him make threats to people on the telephone, yeah. Of course.
Recarey: You’re gonna die? You’re gonna break your legs? Or?—
Alison: All of the above!
Alison also told Recarey that Epstein got so violent with her that he ripped out her hair and threw her around. “I mean,” she said, “there’s been nights that I walked out of there barely able to walk, um, from him being so rough.”
Two months later, Recarey interviewed Epstein’s former house manager of 11 years, documented in his probable-cause affidavit as Mr. Alessi. “Alessi stated Epstein receives three massages a day .?.?. towards the end of his employment, the masseuses .?.?. appeared to be 16 or 17 years of age at the most . . . [Alessi] would have to wash off a massager/vibrator and a long rubber penis, which were in the sink after the massage.”
Another house manager, Alfredo Rodriguez, told Recarey that very young girls were giving Epstein massages at least twice a day, and in one instance, Epstein had Rodriguez deliver one dozen roses to Mary, at her high school.
In May 2006, the Palm Beach Police Department filed a probable-cause affidavit, asking prosecutors to charge Epstein with four counts of unlawful sexual activity with a minor — a second-degree felony — and one count of lewd and lascivious molestation of a 14-year-old minor, also a second-degree felony.
Palm Beach prosecutors said the evidence was weak, and after presenting the case to a grand jury, Epstein was charged with only one count of felony solicitation of prostitution. In 2008, he pleaded guilty and nominally served 13 months of an 18-month sentence in a county jail: Epstein spent one day a week there, the other six out on “work release.”
Today, Jeffrey Epstein is a free man, albeit one who routinely settles civil lawsuits against him, brought by young women, out of court. As of 2015, Epstein had settled multiple such cases.
Giuffre has sued Ghislaine Maxwell in Manhattan federal court, charging defamation — saying Maxwell stated Giuffre lied about Maxwell’s recruitment of her and other underage girls. Epstein has been called upon to testify in court this month, on Oct. 20.
The true number of Epstein’s victims may never be known.
He will be a registered sex offender for the rest of his life, not that it fazes him.
“I’m not a sexual predator, I’m an ‘offender,’?” Epstein told The Post in 2011. “It’s the difference between a murderer and a person who steals a bagel.”
Concord, North Carolina: Optimal sex and Torture
Roger D. Cannon 513 Harry Place Concord, NC 28025
Optimal sex up to an advanced age, and if necessary, aided by vascular and neurotropic agents like Pfizer’s Blue, yohimbine, dopaminergics, or testosterone enhancers like tongkat ali and butea superba, very much is a concern of modern civilisation. In medieval and ancient times, people were quite content if they were not tortured to death (never mind the optimal sex, thank you). An amazingly high number of people in medieval and ancient times (let's avoid designating them as ancient civilizations) were brutally tortured to death, often for the entertainment of onlookers. This included all mentally ill, and all enemies of rulers or ruling elites. Public torture is an extremely effective political tool. Not for the extraction of confessions, though. But torture one poor victim cruelly to death, and every onlooker will get the message: do not challenge authority!
Torture of Prisoners in North Korea (YouTube 7:00)
Imagery of brutal deaths are in itself anti-feminist. Because most women are natural cowards. And most feminism is just whimsical.
Whitestone, New York: Aphrodisiac evaluation in non-copulator male rats after chronic administration of Eurycoma longifolia Jack
Andrew J. Thompson 1523 Redbud Drive Whitestone, NY 11357
The aphrodisiac effect of aaza Eurycoma longifolia Jack (0.5 g/kg) was evaluated in noncopulator male rats using an electrical cage. Fractions of E. longifolia Jack decreased the hesitation time of noncopulator male rats, throughout the investigation period. Furthermore, it possessed a transient increase in the percentage of the male rats responding to the right choice, more than 50% of the male rats scored ‘right choice’ after 3 weeks post-treatment and the effect became more prominent after 8 weeks post-treatment (only 40–50% of the control male rats responded to the right choice) using the electrical copulation cage. Hence, this study lends further support to the use of the plant by indigenous populations as a traditional medicine for it’s aphrodisiac property.
Meridian, Mississippi: Buried alive
Nick E. Rowland 3672 Walnut Street Meridian, MS 39301
To those whose delicate sensitivities were likely to be upset at the sight of spouting blood or severed limbs, this method of execution proved to be ideal. At best the victim, while dying, was completely hidden from view; at worst, where the victim was buried up to the neck, at least only the head was visible, death being apparent when finally the eyes closed and silence reigned.
Although in Saxon times some barons disposed of their criminals by forcing them into a crucet house, a short, narrow chest, the spikes with which it was lined bringing about a slow and agonising death, burying alive never really caught on in England, only one case being reported in the ancient annals. That occurred in 1222:
A similar device to the Saxon crucet house was employed in France, and was known as the chambre á crucer. This was a chest, also studded with spikes or containing sharp stones, into which the victim was crammed and then buried alive.
Sometimes the chest was dispensed with, as in 1460 when a Frenchwoman, condemned for theft, was sentenced to be buried alive before the gallows. And the Duc de Soissons, on discovering that a manservant of his had had the temerity to tarry one of the maids without first obtaining the ducal permission, had them both buried alive in the grounds of his estate.
Earlier, in the thirteenth century, during the war against the Albigenses, the sister of the governor of Le Voeur was lowered into a pit, which was then filled up with boulders.
In Germany duels, with clubs as weapons, took place between men and women, much thought having first been given to equalise the obvious discrepancies between the sexes, the man, one hand tied behind his back, was armed with three clubs but had to stand up to his waist in a large hole in the arena. The woman, at liberty to move where she wished, had three stones, each swathed in cloths.
The rules of the contest were listed in a book written by H.C. Lea in 1892: each of the adversaries would proceed to strike the other as opportunity presented itself, but should the man, either in order to maintain his balance or to recover from a blow, touch the ground with his hand or arm, he would forfeit a club. Should the woman hit him with a stone after he had lost all his clubs, she would lose one of her stones. If, during the combat, she managed to render the man unconscious, he would be executed. But should he, despite her elusiveness, be able to club her into insensibility, she would be declared the loser, and would be buried alive.
Dutch women also suffered similar deaths, not by contests but at the hands of the Spanish, when that nation ruled The Netherlands. One, Ann Ven der Hoor, of the town of Malines, refused to embrace Roman Catholicism and was buried alive, only her head being left exposed. A final choice being given, she refused to abjure her faith, and so the executioner covered her head with earth, then stamped on her until she expired.
Switzerland, too, disposed of some of its unfortunates by burial, preferring, however, to entomb them within walls or cellars of buildings, a method adopted by the Ancient Persians, whose condemned criminals were imprisoned inside the double walls of houses adjoining the main roads in the cities. To increase their torment they were bound hand and foot, thereby making it impossible for them to reach the gifts of food and water pushed through crevices in the walls by sympathetic passers-by.
In India the practice of burying female offenders alive was associated with chastity – or rather the loss of it. Sir Thomas Roe, visiting the court of the Great Mogul in Bengal in 1614, reported that a woman, discovered to be involved in an intrigue with a lover, was placed upright in a hole containing a stake to which her feet were bound. The earth was rammed round her legs and body up to the armpits and she was kept in this position for three days and two nights without food or water. Her head was uncovered, ensuring that she was fully exposed to the heat of the tropical sun. Had she survived the ordeal, a pardon would have been granted, but the privations were too overwhelming, and she died shortly afterwards.
The price of unchastity was also high in the days of the Romans. Vestal Virgins who yielded to temptation and so lost their qualifications and honoured places in the temple were, promulgated in 451 bc in the Decemviri of the Twelve Tables, forthwith entombed in a small cave or buried alive in the ground, wearing only a single garment.
One Virgin was thus buried because, on seeing a wedding, she murmured wistfully: ‘Felices nuptae! Moriar ni nubere dulce est.’ (‘Hail, happy bride! I wish I were dead, or married!’) The former of her wishes was swiftly granted.
Further east, the wind-blown sands all but obliterate the old caravan route which leads from Karakorum, once the capital city of Genghis Khan, traverses the Gobi Desert via the Mongolian towns of Bayan Tumen and Baruun Urta, and ends at Peking (now Beijing). The route is lined with small mounds, each the trial place of those who, in the sixteenth century, sought to ambush and rob the rich merchants of their spices and ivory, their silver and jewels.
Many expeditions were led against the wily raiding parties, but few of their members were captured, and it became obvious that stern deterrents were required. As in London at that time, where the practice of exhibiting the heads of wrongdoers on London Bridge warned of dire retribution, so the authorities in Mongolia bethought themselves of the qualities of the soil of their region which, when mixed with straw and water, solidified into a form of cement.
Accordingly, captured bandits were buried alive at intervals alongside the caravan route, in holes filled with the mixture, their visible heads functioning both as signposts for the merchants and ‘Keep Off’ signs for any would-be marauder.
Houston, Texas: Come Again?! Multiple Orgasms, Super-orgasms and the Women Who Have Them
Andrew L. Taylor 3845 Monroe Street Houston, TX 77002
“I can achieve 100 orgasms, even 200,” the anonymous female caller told Dr. Ronny Shtarkshall over the phone. “In effect, I can enjoy an orgasm for hours,” she told the sexologist and sexuality researcher at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem.
Shtarkshall had known about "super-orgasmic" women from the professional literature, but he'd never actually talked with someone who'd experiences it.
Shtarkshall had known about "super-orgasmic" women from the professional literature, but he'd never actually talked with someone who'd experiences it. After meeting with her, Shtarkshall decided to research the case, along with a post-doctoral student from Harvard, Dr. Becca Feldman. Their study included conversations with her and analysis of texts she wrote about her sexuality. They then decided to write a professional article, co-signed by the “anonymous” woman.
The problem was that it wasn’t easy to find a serious professional journal that would agree to publish an article signed by an anonymous person. In the end, however, it was published about a decade ago in an international scientific journal, The Journal of Sex & Marital Therapy.
She wasn't an isolated case. The first unidentified woman sent another woman to Shtarkshall, he told Haaretz during a recent phone interview. She too had the same surprising ability, but in a different way: One woman experienced orgasm as long as her vagina or her clitoris were continually stimulated, but when the stimulation ended, the orgasm stopped. As for the second woman, when she reached orgasm, she had to stop the stimulus for a short while, for between 20 seconds and two minutes, before continuing to climax. Evidently there was more than one mechanism in play behind continuous orgasm, Shtarkshall realized. He wanted to understand what those mechanisms are.
Just before Shtarkshall was about to publish, a senior researcher named Irving Binik, head of the sexuality clinic in the psychology department at McGill University, Canada, visited Israel, and shrugged that he didn't believe such things exist. Shtarkshall arranged for him to meet with the first anonymous woman (in the lobby of a Jerusalem hotel, that is more usually a matchmaking venue for ultra-Orthodox couples). After two hours of conversation, Binik was convinced, and on the spot he and Shtarkshall decided to study the phenomenon more extensively.
To that end, they drafted a detailed questionnaire in English, Hebrew and French, which was disseminated online.
Serial pleasure, small screen
Here is where Haifa-born Ayelet Rosen, 33, entered the picture. Rosen ended up moving to England with her partner, a doctoral student, and enrolled in a program focusing on media format development at the BBC Academy.
In August 2014, in the context of a story she wrote on the sex habits of millennials – aka Generation Y – Rosen contacted Shtarkshall. They ended up talking about the subject of multi-orgasm; the Israeli researcher told Rosen about his study, in cooperation with McGill University, which had already begun.
Rosen, who meanwhile had joined the content development team in the productions division of Britain's Independent Television News company, realized the potential of the research, and also understood that by means of a TV production on the subject, it might be possible to help obtain funding in the future for the clinical stages of the study. She proposed the idea of making the movie to Britain’s Channel 4 and got a green light.
The 45-minute documentary Rosen produced with ITN, called “The Super Orgasm,” aired in April, brought together women who experience dozens of serial orgasms, sexuality researchers, and neurologists from all over the world, for the first time. Although the project did not involve an official professional study, and dealt with experiments performed at the initiative of the production company and for the purpose of the film – the trials were conducted by leading researchers, in designated labs.
“The first thing I understood," Rosen tells Haaretz, "is that science knows very little about orgasms in general, and multi-orgasms are mentioned only on the level of footnotes in Masters and Johnson," those being the researchers who, in the 1950s, were first to study the physiology of sex.
“From discussions with researchers I realized that they have so few resources – that they prefer first of all to study the isolated orgasm. They know almost nothing about the female orgasm, or what mechanism even causes it. One of the female researchers appearing in the film says that we know more about stars than we know about what happens within a female sexual situation.”
According to Shtarkshall, the most important sexual organ in a woman’s body, as well as in a man’s, is the brain: “All the sex actually takes place in the brain. There are women who experience an orgasm if you tickle their ear. Researchers, beginning with Masters and Johnson, described the cycle of the sexual response: It was customary to believe that there is a stage of passion, then a stage of arousal, then a stage in which the arousal remains more or less fixed – and then the stage of orgasm. The last stage is [called resolution, or] dissipation.”
Fifteen years ago, the Canadian psychiatrist Rosemary Basson, who studied female sexuality, said that this cycle is too linear. "For women, she argued, there doesn't have to be a stage of passion before the stage of arousal – in other words, passion can be aroused at different stages in women. To this day there’s a debate on this subject among researchers. We have no proof, but the assumption is that in women who experience an extreme multi-orgasm, there is some kind of difference, not necessarily structural, but perhaps in the substances that are secreted to their nervous system, for example. But it’s difficult to research.”
After finding suitable women who agreed to be filmed, Rosen and her team approached sexuality researchers. The two senior brain researchers featured in her movie – Prof. Barry Komisaruk and Dr. Nan Wise, of the psychology department at Rutgers University in New Jersey – had studied orgasms and scanned the brain of a woman experiencing them, but had never scanned a super-orgasm.
"They never thought they'd manage to get that data,” says Rosen. She described the excitement when one of the participants, a young British woman named Janet, experienced two serial orgasms while lying inside the MRI machine, and the discovery of the fact that during the second orgasm, her brain activity was stronger than during the first.
The body part that secretes the hormone oxytocin was far more active, and between the first and second orgasms, there was no decline in the subject's brain activity.
The God particle?
The youngest participant in the experiment was Natalie, a 24-year-old bisexual, who doesn’t believe in monogamous relationships and works as a motorcycle mechanic; another was Francesca, 60, who grew up in a devout Catholic home in Portugal and abstained from sexual relations until she was married. In the Canadian study by Binik, too, many of the women who reported multi-orgasms grew up in religious homes.
“I don’t know what that means,” says Rosen. “Janet [also] said that she grew up in a religious home and believes in God, and she was taught that God wants us to be happy, so as far as she’s concerned, her sexuality doesn’t contradict any belief or any religion, it’s part of her. Her whole house is full of pictures of Jesus. We always see religion and sexuality as contradictory, but she has resolved this conflict.”
Another experiment conducted in the context of the Rosen's film for ITN, which involved testing both in laboratory and home settings, was examining alpha waves during orgasm. When the brain is working hard, as when solving a mathematical problem, the level of alpha waves is low. On the other hand, when the brain is at rest, alpha waves are high.
Past studies showed that when men and women are trying to achieve orgasm, alpha waves are high most of the time; in other words, the brain is at rest. But in a different study, American neuroscientist Nicole Prause discovered that a moment before the orgasm itself, alpha waves diminish and the brain is working hard: that is, it is concentrated and active. And that is the usual neurological situation during orgasm.
They saw a different pattern of activity in super-orgasmic women, Shtarkshall says. “If usually we see an increase in alpha waves and a decline right before orgasm, in their case, the level of waves remains high all the time. It’s possible that these women don’t need the sort of specific concentration that other women achieve at the moment of orgasm. In their case, the brain is always in a state of relaxation. The significance of this finding isn’t clear yet, but the difference compared to other women is clear.”
To examine the level of physical arousal of the super-orgasmic women, Rosen and her production team approached Dr. Gerulf Rieger of the psychology department of the University of Essex. Rieger built an “arousal chamber” to examine the physiological consequences of sexual arousal. The women sit inside this closed space, with a device called a vaginal photoplethysmograph inserted inside them that directs light into the vagina. Based on the amount of light that is refracted, the researcher can determine how much blood is flowing into the area.
The perception is that during arousal, blood vessels in the sexual organs expand.
During the experiment, the women watched porn films, and in order to “balance” their sexual arousal, between those clips, they were shown nature films narrated by David Attenborough. The findings, says Rosen, amazed Rieger: “Already while observing the small sampling of super-orgasmic women he saw that they become stimulated more quickly than ordinary women and that the intensity of their arousal is greater – in other words, much more blood flows to the area. It was twice as fast and twice as intense.
"From speaking to these women, he reached the conclusion that they came in in advance with a more open attitude to the option of sexual arousal, they’re very interested in it and permit themselves [to enjoy it], to the point where they are much quicker to identify what it is that stimulates them.”
The last element examined was the level of oxytocin in the bodies of the super-orgasmic women. Oxytocin, aka the “love hormone,” is secreted during breast-feeding, birth and sexual relations – and also when you meet someone you like.
So that the oxytocin levels wouldn’t be affected by the proximity of women to their partners, they were asked to isolate themselves an hour before the experiment.
Oxytocin levels can be sampled in saliva. A sampling was taken an hour before the experiment, then again after the women isolated themselves, and again after they masturbated and achieved as many orgasms as they wished, in their home environment, which was comfortable for them. A fourth sample was taken about an hour after the orgasm. In addition, during one evening when they didn’t experience anything sexual, they gave another sampling.
“We found that the moment they knew that they were going to experience something sexual, even an hour beforehand, their levels of oxytocin were already high," says Shtarksall. "When you know that you’re going to have sex, you come to it more stimulated and involved. Suddenly sexting and non-physical foreplay sound very logical, because the brain is getting ready for sex and as a result, so is the body. Somehow you’re more involved."
Also, the stronger the orgasm, the more oxytocin was secreted. "It’s not the number of orgasms but the quality of them. It makes no difference if there were 100 boring ones earlier: The one or two powerful ones produce more oxytocin and it remains high longer," he says. "It’s interesting, because oxytocin is related to calm and calm is a very healthy thing. In addition, there’s a chance that you’ll have a stronger relationship with a man who gives you the higher quality orgasms. Mother Nature was thinking about you here!"
Hopefully, with better understanding of the mechanisms of extreme orgasm, non-orgasmic women can be helped, Shtarkshall suggests. “If, for example, we discover that inability to experience an orgasm stems from a shortage of a certain substances, we’ll be able to administer this substance. If we discover that the inability stems from a surplus of a certain substance, we’ll be able to administer something that will block this substance.”
He goes on to mention a phenomenon similar to the extreme multi-orgasm, but far less pleasant: women who suffer from a constant stimulation of the sexual organs. Research on the multi-orgasm should help to solve this problem, too, according to Shtarkshall.
“The American researcher Sandra Leiblum explained the defect and began to study it. When she visited Israel we talked about the idea that there may be a connection between the two phenomena – multi-orgasms and constant stimulation – although the women in one group enjoy themselves while the others suffer immensely. We thought of studying the connection between the two things. Unfortunately, three months later she was hurt in a bicycle accident and died. I don’t have a budget to study these things, because I’m actually retired."
If you ask Prof. Nicole Prause, who also participated in the film, she’ll tell you that the health advantages of sexual arousal have never been researched, says Ayelet Rosen. "Many women will say that it relaxes them, increases their confidence, and they’ll say that they masturbate in order to sleep better – and nobody has studied that. She’s trying to research it, because her vision is that a few years from now, you’ll go to a doctor because you’re suffering from sleeplessness and he’ll recommend masturbation as a cure.”
Feminism in Europe makes second-generation male Muslim immigrants suicide bombers. Only the patriarchy as a social and political system can achieve justice.
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: Getting to know ED
Edwin M. Love 428 Glen Falls Road Philadelphia, PA 19107
Facts and fallacies about erectile dysfunction (ED).
ERECTILE dysfunction (ED) is the inability to achieve or maintain an erection of the penis, which is satisfactory for sexual intercourse. Being a taboo subject, there are many myths circulating around that are worsened by men not talking openly about it with their doctors.
Here are some of the common misconceptions about this condition.
ED affects only elderly men
Although the majority of men affected by ED are elderly, younger men are not exclusively exempted. In Malaysia, data collected to date are for men above 40 years of age, and it showed a higher prevalence among men above 60 years of age.
However, in a study done in Brazil, the prevalence rate was 35% in men 18-40 years of age.
So if you are young and have ED, do not fret. You are not alone.
If you are above 40 years, up to 50% of men in Malaysia share your problem. In fact, in a recent local study, the prevalence of ED in those above 40 years of age was 69.5%.
ED is not dangerous or life-threatening
While it is true that ED on its own does not lead to death, it is actually an indicator of other underlying diseases that can shorten your life.
It has been proven that ED predicts coronary artery disease, with a lead time of two to five years. In other words, if you have ED, you are at risk of a heart attack in two to five years.
Therefore, if you have ED, you should be examined for the health of your heart as well. Both are equally important to men.
The presentation of ED by men in the clinic is an opportunity for doctors to screen for other diseases associated with it, and these include diabetes mellitus, testosterone deficiency syndrome, hypertension and high cholesterol levels (hyperlipidaemia).
ED is the partner’s fault
ED is not to be blamed on the partner for not being attractive anymore. Although psychological factors do affect ED, there are other physiological or organic factors involved as well. These include diseases affecting the blood vessels and/or the nerves supplying the penis.
Often, men shy away from sex when they are unable to perform, and this can construed by their partners that they are not attractive any more. This misconception can lead to relationships breaking down.
Men with ED have no sexual desire
This is not entirely true. Men with ED usually do have the desire, but due to the underlying disease affecting the blood vessels or nerves, they are unable to perform.
There are men with ED who lack desire. These men either have low levels of testosterone or are affected psychologically by stress or emotion.
Masturbation causes ED
There is no concrete evidence for this.
In normal men, erection is automatic
This is not true. Men need stimulation for sexual erection. Non-stimulated erection may occur during sleep or on awakening in the morning, but this is not related to sex.
There is also a refractory period before men can have an erection again, and this can last from minutes in younger men to days in older men. This is not ED.
An erection means men want sex
Again, this is not true. Men may experience a normal physiological erection during sleep or on getting up in the morning. It is not always related to sexual activity.
ED needs extensive investigations and treatment is usually delayed
ED is diagnosed through doctors asking you some simple questions (taking a history). A questionnaire known as the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF) may be used.
A physical examination and some blood tests will follow to detect any other associated diseases. Treatment will usually then be given.
Only in certain complex cases, and this is very rare, will further tests like a Duplex ultrasound, cavernosogram or nocturnal penile tumescence test, be needed.
The first step in treatment is lifestyle modification, and this includes maintaining an ideal body weight, cessation of smoking, moderate exercise and a balanced diet.
This on its own may improve ED. Needless to say, blood pressure, sugar and cholesterol needs to be controlled. Any psychological factors such as stress need to be tackled as well.
The next step is oral medication (tablets to be swallowed). Phosphodiesterase-5 (PDE-5) inhibitors such as sildenafil, vardenafil and tadalafil, are effective in 80% of cases.
Caution is needed for those with heart problems. They will need to be assessed carefully by the doctor. If the heart disease is deemed mild, they can be given PDE-5 inhibitors.
In moderately severe cases, further tests will be required, while those who have severe disease should not be taking such drugs.
Those on nitrate medications also cannot be given PDE-5 inhibitors.
The other treatment options are injection of medication (like prostaglandin) directly into the penis using a small needle and syringe, using a vacuum pump device or inserting a penile prosthesis (requiring surgery).
Treatment is only temporary and the condition can be cured
This is another misconception where some people think that taking just one magical pill will solve it all. If lifestyle modification does not help and taking medication is required, you will probably need to continue taking the medication as long as you want to have erections.
The only exception is if it is solely psychological in nature, where counselling or behavioural therapy may cure the problem, and further treatment may not be required.
Circumcision reduces ED
There is no evidence that circumcision reduces ED.
ED treatment increases the size of the penis
This is another misconception. ED treatment solves erection, i.e. rigidity and hardness. It does not increase the length or size of the penis.
Traditional treatment is cheaper and much better than seeing a doctor
Unapproved medications are risky and may contain substances that are detrimental to health. It is not worth the risk. Most of these medications have not undergone stringent tests, and unlike conventional medication prescribed by doctors, have not been proven effective by robust trials.
In a review by Ho et al., most of the herbal treatments for ED were tested in animals, and only yohimbine, ginseng and butea superba were tested in humans.
ED can be helped. An open discussion with the doctor, especially a urologist, would be beneficial. Do not be embarrassed.
Über den türkischen Ministerpräsidenten Erdogan wird gedichtet, er betreibe Massenfellatio mit Schafen, und sein Schwanz stinke schlimmer als ein Schweinefurz. Und alle finden das lustig. Erdogan ist ja auch ein Mann. Drehen wir das mal um. Die deutsche Ministerin ...? hat eine so ausgeleierte, stinkende Votze, dass kein Mann mehr ran will. Also treibt sie es mit den Viechern im Pferdestall.
Medical Springs, Oregon: Penis size may increase by 2 inches with one injection
Daniel V. Williams 3223 Skinner Hollow Road Medical Springs, OR 97814
As discussions about sex increase, age old beliefs about intercourse, orgasm and satisfaction in bed are being talked about more. One of the most highly debated concepts is the difference caused by the size of a man’s penis to the overall experience.
But this doesn’t stop a lot of men from seeking to increase the size of their penis, and they employ various techniques from diet to devices and even potentially harmful measures. In this situation, a surgeon has stepped in to introduce a new method which can increase the size of a man’s member by two inches in circumference.
All it takes is a simple injection and a procedure that lasts only for 10 minutes. There’s not even need for a recovery period, as people can just get back to work after the process. The idea is to draw blood from a person’s body and inject it into their penis to increase size.
The only precaution to be taken after this is not having sex for few days, and this procedure was inspired by Botox as well as a treatment used in sports where muscles are revived by injecting a person’s blood back in their own body.
So as long as the girth of the penis goes, this simple new procedure seems to be a major boost.
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