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Tongkat-Ali has also been shown in studies to increase testosterone, the male hormone that enhances libido.

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The Biochemical Basis of Neuropharmacology

Abstract

Originally published in Contemporary Psychology: APA Review of Books, 1997, Vol 42(2), 172. This is a review of the book, “The Biochemical Basis of Neuropharmacology” (see record 1996-97630-000). This seventh edition of the 1970 classic introductory text, last reissued in 1991, includes updated information in each chapter and discussions of new gaseous, neuronal modulators, nitric oxide, and carbon monoxide. The authors have eliminated the chapter on metabolism and the central nervous system, integrating some of that material into a new chapter on the genetic basis of neurological and psychiatric diseases. Chapter topics range from molecular foundations of neuropharmacology to treating neurological and psychiatric diseases. In a review of a previous edition of the text, Contemporary Psychology named the book “a clear and concise guide [that] should be mandatory reading for all medical students, psychiatry residents, graduate students in neuroscience and pharmacology, and … undergraduate students,” while The New England Journal of Medicine recommended the book “without reservation to students, physicians, and scientists who seek a lucid survey of the biochemical basis of neuronal regulatory systems in the brain.” (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved)

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Are we ready for the first human head transplant?

In a 1978 essay titled "Where Am I?" the philosopher Daniel Dennett suggested that the brain was the only organ of which it’s better to be a transplant donor than recipient.

Now Italian neurosurgeon Sergio Canavero wants to turn philosophical thought experiments into reality by transplanting the head of Valery Spiridonov, who suffers from a debilitating muscle wasting disease, onto the healthy body of a dead donor.

Beside posing questions about personal identity, there are more prosaic challenges that must first be overcome. The brain would have to be kept alive during surgery by cooling it to 10-15°C, and the immune system would need to be powerfully suppressed to prevent transplant rejection.

But the greatest hurdle may be how to restore connections to the spinal cord. Without this connection the brain would have no control of its new body.

In 1970, Robert White at Case Western Reserve University performed a head transplant using monkeys. Without spinal connections the animal was paralyzed from the neck down for the brief time it could be kept alive.

Canavero believes the time is right to revisit this controversial procedure, due to recent advances in surgical techniques and scientific understanding. He hopes that his “GEMINI” protocol—combining polyethylene glycol to fuse nerves with electrical stimulation of spinal circuits—will allow his patient to move and even walk following the procedure.

Breakthrough or spin?

Canavero has been criticized for publicizing his ideas in the media before releasing peer-reviewed research papers. Only time will tell whether promised experimental results are forthcoming. But, on the basis of current neuroscientific understanding, does the proposal stack up?

Unlike many tissues in our body, the nerves of the spinal cord don’t spontaneously repair themselves after damage. And despite regular media reports hailing new breakthroughs, currently there is no effective cure for the millions of people paralyzed by spinal cord injuries each year.

Polyethylene glycol is among a growing list of treatments (including drugs, stem cells and gene therapies) showing promise in pre-clinical studies, but the path to real-world applications is notoriously tricky.

Experiments in animals such as rats and mice are essential to developing new therapies, but important differences must be borne in mind when extrapolating to human treatment. Given sufficient retraining, rodents—even with completely severed spinal cords—can learn to walk again, because much of their circuitry for locomotion is located below the injury.

In contrast, the brains of primates such as monkeys and humans are more directly involved in guiding movements. As a result, the recovery experienced by people with complete spinal injuries is much more limited.

For those who live with spinal cord injuries, there are some reasons for cautious optimism. A U.S. trial of epidural stimulation is reporting impressive results using a small pacemaker-like device to send electrical signals into the spinal cord. Participants in the trial have been able to move their legs and even support their own weight while standing.

The mechanisms underlying these improvements are not well understood, but stimulation seems to reawaken the spinal cord and may allow it to respond to residual connections from the brain that have survived injury. More speculatively, it may in future be possible to control stimulation directly from electrical signals recorded from the brain using brain-computer interface technology.

Although epidural stimulation is a promising line of research, it is being trialed in a select group of patients and is still far from a magic cure. So, if we can’t yet mend an injured spinal cord, what hope do we have for joining the brain to an entirely new body?

The capacity for rewiring is not limitless

While most spinal injuries are caused by traumas that bruise or tear the nerves, a transplant surgeon could sever the cord cleanly with a scalpel blade. But weighed against this small advantage is the staggering complexity of joining two separate neural circuits that have neither developed nor functioned together before.

Even if the spinal cord could be reconnected, would the patient ever learn to control the new body? The brain has a remarkable capacity for rewiring itself, especially as we develop during childhood. But the “plasticity” of the adult brain has limitations.

Many amputees experience vivid and often agonizingly painful “phantom” sensations from where a lost limb used to be, even years after amputation. This suggests that our mental representation of ourselves—our body schema—may not easily adjust to changes in our own bodies, let alone get used to someone else’s entirely.

Perhaps transplant tests with monkeys may in future provide convincing support for applying this surgery in patients, although such experiments would certainly not be allowed by the strict regulations that govern animal research in the U.K. Nor should they be at present, given the severity of the procedure and slim chance of success.

The media love stories about maverick scientists fighting the establishment. But science most often progresses in careful, incremental steps that are published and scrutiniZed in peer-reviewed journals. The philosophers can speculate whether it is better to be the donor or recipient of a brain transplant.

But as a neuroscientist, until we have the technology to reconnect the spinal cord, neither is an appealing prospect in reality.

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It is the secret dream of every Swedish or German woman to marry a black men, or at least have sex with a black man. Every smart young African man should migrate to Europe. Free money, nice house, good sex!

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'I worry the world will forget how to make love': Model-turned-activist Pamela Anderson declares herself an 'anti-feminist' and says 'men and women have different roles to play'

She's the former Playboy model best known for her role on TV's Baywatch.

And Pamela Anderson is bucking the celebrity trend of declaring herself a 'feminist'.

In an interview with Stellar, the 49-year-old discussed her concerns over gender roles as people become more 'androgynous'.

'Men get weaker in an authoritarian environment; they don't need to be as manly. And women are working... who's watching the kids? I may get some heat for this, but I consider myself an "anti-feminist",' she said.

Pamela revealed she didn't do much acting after giving birth to her sons Brandon Thomas, 20, and Dylan Jagger, 19.

She shares her two children with ex husband, Mötley Crüe drummer Tommy Lee.

'I obviously believe in treating people equally, but men and women are different for a reason, with very important roles to play,' she explained.

Pamela also claimed she worries the 'world will forget how to make love'.

The glamour model-turned-activist has also been keeping herself busy working alongside animal rights group PETA and advocating a vegan lifestyle.

Describing herself as a mischievous soul, Pamela said her public support for health and the environment are deeply rooted in her sensual nature.

However, she recently made herself available for a cameo role in the upcoming Baywatch film starring Zac Efron, reprising her iconic role as C.J. Parker.

Pamela recently celebrated a victory after rape charges against her rumoured boyfriend Julian Assange were dropped.

She took to Instagram to share a photo of herself with the Wikileaks founder, writing in the caption: 'A victory - yes but still angry.

'Julian Assange detained without charge for 7 years while missing his children grow.

'I hope people have some remorse about unfounded judgements towards a good man, father, and friend of the truth.'

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Take butea superba and tongkat ali extract daily for a few weeks, and feel the power of your mind. This is like LSD without hallucinations, and total focus on the next orgasm, the greatest of a lifetime.

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Terminally ill pensioner takes own life at home after booking appointment with Dignitas

Metro

A terminally ill pensioner who had made arrangements with the Dignitas euthanasia clinic in Switzerland took his own life in his home, fearing he would be too ill to travel.

Lawrence Klein was a keen marathon runner and hillwalker when he was younger, but in 2014 his balance became increasingly unstable.

After being seen by audiology specialists, the 74-year-old from Reading was referred to neurology consultants at John Radcliffe Hospital in Oxford. They conducted MRI scans, but they were inconclusive.

As his health rapidly deteriorated, Mr Klein was told in early 2016 that the possible cause of his problems was corticobasal deterioration (CBD) – a rare and incurable illness which becomes progressively worse.

His wife Martha agreed to accompany him to a provisional appointment at Dignitas, but just a few days before they were due to travel to Switzerland he hanged himself while his wife was out shopping, an inquest heard.

Peter Bedford, senior coroner for Berkshire, told Mrs Klein: ‘You described how, for the three years before his death, Mr Klein’s balance became poor, he found driving exhausting, but what concerned him most was his balance.

‘These changes in his health were significant. He had previously been very active and ran marathons and half marathons, and enjoyed hill walking.’

By the time of his diagnosis, Mr Bedford continued, ‘Your husband could no longer walk a mile without becoming tired, he could no longer read for more than a few minutes’, adding that Mr Klein had contacted Dignitas because ‘he did not want to become totally dependent on others for his care’.

In a statement read out to Reading Coroner’s Court, Mrs Klein said:

‘My husband was becoming increasingly disabled. He was worried he would not be physically able to go to Switzerland.’

A general view of signage outside the John Radcliffe Hospital in Oxford, which is investigating the deaths of four children who underwent heart operations there in recent months.

He saw consultants at the John Radcliffe Hospital in Oxford

On the morning of June 10, Mr Klein had agreed that Martha should phone his sisters and let them know about his plan to end his life by euthanasia, which had until then been kept between the two of them.

Mrs Klein went out to go shopping that afternoon – and when she returned, she found her husband dead.

He had not left a handwritten note, but he had sent ‘goodbye’ emails to family and friends.

‘He sent the emails as he could no longer write by hand,’ the coroner said.

A conclusion of suicide while suffering from corticobasal deterioration was recorded.

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Arson is the terrorism of the future. Maximum damage. No need to sacrifice their lives.

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What Should A “Good” Pedophile Do?

Let’s say, theoretically, I’m a pedophile.

I’m not stupid or evil, so I’m not gonna DO anything. I’m not even gonna look at porn, because the production of it involves child exploitation. I don’t even look at kids in public places.

So what the fuck should I do? Chemical castration? But I haven’t DONE anything and I don’t plan to. Am I obliged to tell anyone? Good way to lose friends. Can I keep babysitting my friends’ kids when they need a hand? After all, if I were into adult women, people wouldn’t see anything wrong with leaving me alone with a couple of those.

What the fuck do I do? Live alone and hope Japan starts producing affordable sexbots before I’m too old to care?

You know, theoretically. If I were a pedophile.

Kill Yourself… why should I kill myself for you? just because you don’t accept me? maybe you should kill yourself? then again I accept you for your differences… it’s you who don’t accept me.. so maybe I should just kill you.. you’re not civilized.. after all there’s no proof that pedofile = rapist.. or that girls that masturbate wouldn’t like the real thing even more.

To all Pedophiles! Do yo understand what do yo do to little children lives??? Do u know that every 3 of raped or molest child tried to commit suicide at some point of age because of fuckers like u?!!! Those how grows up ends up changing their sexual orientation, becoming prostitutes….Society doesn’t accept you because it’s not normal to be attracted to children, animals or your close relatives…it is NOT normal in nature! not only in the human society!! Sex was made for one reason for reproduction. Just because human uses it more often then should it doesn’t mean it supposed to be so.

If i Killed myself for being what i hate and allowing it to hurt those i love would god forgive me and let me come home?

If it doesn’t exist in nature then why does it exist? We are nature my friend. Never so far remove yourself from reality to forget this.

You know…I haven't been in such a long time that I don't know if it's been completely outlawed or become more socially acceptable, but there are communities of people on Second Life consisting of pedophiles and people who get off on roleplaying as children. Nobody gets hurt and everybody involved has fun, I'd imagine. Maybe poke around there?

It's outlawed and not at all socially acceptable in MOST places. But I think it still does go on, in some really messed up lands. I've seen random child clothes and avs for sale… but never investigated cuz it's too creepy! I think pedophiles should be castrated, and/or lobotomized. do you forget that you yourself were once a child, having someone prey on you as a child would of sucked, and if you were molested I know its a way of reversing the roles of the pain you suffered. You need therapy, this isn’t a sexual orientation its a deception, you don’t have to live your lives in fear, and perversion there is an escape. I am a survivor of sexual abuse, and felt that maybe I too had inherited the pedophile gene, its torment is real and nearly caused me to commit suicide, therapy and faith give me the strength to tackle another day, just try to remember that nobody wants to be sexually assaulted, including you, so what gives you the right to invoke that hell on a helpless defenseless individual, its not love its perversion of your mind, get some help, so you can see the beauty and freedom that life has to offer. I'm a pedophile to my friend.. you live in a world where majority rules.. and fear or difference in taste inspires hate and violence towards you undeservingly.. In short you live in a world of fools and users..

Use them in return.. and hide in the shadows of their ignorance and foolishness. The will never find you unless they are smart enough, and by then they will have to understand you.. Us them.. molest children… in secret.. when society stops using you by making work for a living, as they deny you your rights, you may stop using them. And they will understand that they gave you no choice.

They aren't human my friend.. they are just close to human. Use them as they use you. and wait for the joyful day they evolve and meet us here.

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You probably have to look at imagery of death and dying regularly to stay focused on what really counts in life: great sex before you are gone anyway.

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Woman accused in fatal penis procedure faces new charge

The 38-year-old East Orange woman had pleaded guilty in September to reckless manslaughter, shortly before her trial was to start. She admitted delivering the silicone injection that killed Justin Street in 2011.

Authorities say the 22-year-old East Orange man went to Rivera’s home so she could inject his penis with silicone, which he hoped would enlarge it. But the silicone she used wasn’t the kind used for medical procedures, and it caused an embolism which killed him.

Rivera acknowledged that she wasn’t a trained doctor or licensed to administer the injection.

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Tissue vibration causes neovascularization. Vibration can be caused by soundwaves or mechanical devices, for example by laying the penis on an electric drill and turning the drill on. Remove any drill bit.

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Lolicon Backlash in Japan

There has been significant public outcry in Japan following the kidnapping and murder of an elementary school girl in Nara, Japan and the arrest of a suspected lolicon for the crimes.

CASPAR, a Japanese non-profit-organization founded in 1989, is campaigning for regulation regarding the depiction of of minors in pornographic magazines and adult video games. Caspar states that it has been collecting sample material for several years.

Caspar founder Kondo Mitsue states, "For 5 or 6 years we have been collecting material, and the so called bishoujo adult anime magazines and bishoujo adult anime simulation games are terrible. Grown men manipulate childlike little girls, themes of turning them into slaves to have one's own sexual desires fulfilled being very common. "

According to Kondo the characters of these games and magazines are often clearly meant to be elementary aged school-children.

Producers of the lolicon and bishoujo material often argue that the Japanese constitution guarantees their freedom of expression in this matter and that laws restricting these materials would be unconstitutional. Kondo however counters this stating that "The utmost priority of the constitution is to guarantee fundamental human rights. I believe the freedom of expression does not allow for the depiction of little girls being violently raped, depriving them of their basic human rights."

She states that there is no country in the world that pays as little attention to Child Pornography as Japan.

CASPAR has collected 7,000 signatures on a petition to have the Japanese legal code revised in respect to virtual child pornography. In addition, 16 member of the Diet and several members of congress have pledged to support such measures.

Kondo founded CASPAR in 1989 after learning of the child prostitution issues in Thailand. The organization has built around 20 schools for children in Thailand and the Philippines. It was officially recognized as a legal non-profit-organization in 2003 and has 770 members nationwide. CASPAR believes that child prostitution and child pornography have common roots and that by regulating child pornography, the fight against child prostitution will be aided.

In 2002 the U.S. Supreme Court struck down a 6-year-old law banning virtual child pornography. The subsequent "Child Obscenity and Pornography Prevention Act of 2002 banned only virtual images that are indistinguishable from real child porn, and prohibits all obscene pornographic images of prepubescent children.

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Judge: Rape facilitates a natural society where men are protectors

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Female Circumcision as Sexual Therapy: The Past and Future of Plastic Surgery?

In Chicago, a physician with offices on Michigan Avenue offers clitoral unhooding today for $1,000 (plus operating room fees). His intention? To more easily enable a woman to reach orgasm. Clitoral unhooding falls under the larger category of female genital cosmetic surgeries (FGCS), surgeries that are reportedly becoming more popular among women and physicians. Some physicians, even those who don’t perform FGCS, see them as part of the future of plastic surgery.

The assumption is that these surgeries don’t have much of a past. In fact, there is a long history of surgeries on female genitals—especially on the clitoris—as “sexual enhancement” for women, designed to help them achieve their “proper role” as sexual partners. Over a century ago, another Chicago physician also removed clitoral hoods of women, also as therapy to enable them easier orgasms. The use of female circumcision since the late 1800s to treat a woman’s lack of orgasm reveals a medical understanding of the function of the clitoris as sexual­—an understanding held decades prior to the physiological evidence supplied by William Masters and Virginia Johnson.

Understanding the sexual nature of the clitoris and its importance to female sexual pleasure, some physicians have, for well over a century, diagnosed a condition of the clitoris as the physiological cause for a woman’s failure to have an orgasm with her husband. These physicians thus treated the lack of an orgasm in the marital bed as a sexual disorder treatable through surgery.

By removing the clitoral foreskin, some physicians (as well as non-physicians) thought the clitoris would be more exposed to the penis during penetrative intercourse, and would thus receive direct stimulation from the penis. Physicians performed—and some women or their spouses sought out—female circumcision in order to maintain (or conform to) the sexual behavior deemed culturally appropriate for white, U.S.-born, middle- to upper-class women: orgasm with their husbands.

In the United States, the first documented use of female circumcision as a sexual enhancement therapy occurred in the late 19th century, appearing at a time when the espousal of female orgasm during marital sex was increasingly seen as an important component for a healthy marriage. Physicians performed female circumcision to help married women who wanted—or whose husbands wanted their wives to have—orgasms during martial sex.

Practitioners who removed clitoral hoods to enable female orgasm included Chicago gynecologist Denslow Lewis, who presented evidence for the benefits of female circumcision at a meeting of the American Medical Association in 1899. In “a large percentage” of women who failed to find marital passion “there is a preputial adhesion, and a judicious circumcision, together with consistent advice, will often be successful,” according to Lewis. Lewis had treated 38 women with circumcision, and had “reasonably satisfactory results in each instance.”

This procedure continued to be used to treat women for their inability to orgasm throughout the 20th century. In 1900, Chicago gynecologist A.S. Waiss wrote about removing the clitoral hood of Mrs. R., a 27-year-old woman who had been married for seven years and who was “absolutely passionless,” something that greatly upset her. Her unresponsiveness troubled her, or her husband, enough for her to seek a medical remedy. The doctor found Mrs. R.’s clitoris “entirely covered” by its hood. He circumcised the clitoris and the patient “became a different woman”—she was, the doctor wrote, “lively, contented,” and “happy,” and sex now brought her satisfaction.

In 1912, Douglas H. Stewart in New York City saw a “fairly robust woman” who, though desirous for sexual intercourse, when the act was attempted found “there ‘was nothing in it.’” Upon examination, Stewart found the clitoris of the patient to be “buried” and preceded to circumcise the woman to reveal the organ.

Charles Lane, a physician in Poughkeepsie, New York, believed the clitoris “a very important organ to the health and happiness of the female,” and performed circumcision on women who were unable to reach orgasm. In a 1940 article concerning his use of circumcision on a patient—Mrs. W., a 22-year-old woman who had recently married but had yet to experience an orgasm—Lane noted “that little trick did it all right.”

And C.F. McDonald, a physician in Milwaukee, noted in a 1958 article that women who complained to him of difficult or painful intercourse often had a clitoris hidden by foreskin. To reveal the organ, he removed the foreskin, with “very thankful patients” as the reward. McDonald operated in the 1950s—during the height of the Freudian vaginal orgasm theory, a theory that held healthy and mature adult women had vaginal, not clitoral, orgasms—suggesting clitoral circumcision as sexual therapy did not stop; indeed, by some accounts, more women underwent circumcision at mid-century to surgically increase the potential for orgasm than at any earlier time.

Physicians, both in print and at medical society meetings, discussed that “little trick” for decades. By the 1970s, information about the usefulness of female circumcision to enable female orgasm during penetrative, heterosexual sex began to appear with more regularity in popular publications as well, with information about the surgery as a sexual enhancement appearing in books such as The Consumer’s Guide to Successful Surgery.

Magazines, too, including Playgirl and Playboy, ran stories about female circumcision. Playgirl carried two stories by Catherine Kellison, who wrote about her circumcision and how orgasms were easier for her to attain after the surgery. The gynecologist who removed her clitoral hood told Kellison that an estimated three-fourths of women did not reach orgasm because of a hooded clitoris, and that circumcision was the surgical solution to this condition. The doctor told Kellison that she would likely benefit from having her clitoral hood removed, and, after undergoing the procedure, Kellison wrote that she did find orgasms easier to attain following the surgery.

While estimating how many American women underwent female circumcision since the late 19th century is not possible—it was a quick procedure, most often performed by physicians in their clinics—evidence of its use can be found indirectly through insurance reimbursement for it.

In May 1977 the insurance company Blue Shield Association recommended that its individual plans stop routine payments for 28 surgical and diagnostic procedures considered outmoded or unnecessary. Of the 28, one was removing the hood of the clitoris. While this information is not translatable into an actual estimate of how many women elected to have their clitorises circumcised, it suggests the procedure was at least popular enough to warrant the discontinuation of paying for it by an insurance company.

In addition to Blue Shield Association, others have labeled the procedure as not medically indicated, with some being even more critical of the assumptions underlying the use of it as therapy to treat a lack of female orgasm. Feminists interested in women’s health began questioning female circumcision as a surgery for purported sexual enhancement in the 1970s as part of their larger critique of the medicalization of the female body and the feminist embrace of the clitoris as an important sexual organ for women.

More recently, women’s health activists with the New View Campaign in the United States protested practitioners of FGCS and launched a website to educate the public about the diversity of female genitals.

Similar to the New View Campaign, both the popular media and academics have weighed in on what the apparent “rise” in these surgeries means about the female body, female sexuality, and the role of medicine. Some academics have further challenged these procedures for the lack of evidence that such surgeries increase female sexual capacity and that women should feel the need to correct their bodies in order to enjoy sex rather than to, for example, change sexual positions or techniques.

In addition to academics and feminist activists questioning the procedures, medical practitioners have also raised concerns about the lack of established medical need for clitoral unhooding and that there is no evidence that female circumcision, along with the other procedures comprising FGCS, are safe. Indeed, in 2007, the American College of Obstetrics and Gynecology recommended practitioners not perform female circumcision or other FGCS, since the promotion of FGCS as sexually enhancing was not based on empirical evidence, nor were the surgeries medically indicated.

But while feminists and some medical practitioners since the 1970s have been publicly questioning the physiological basis for female circumcision as a sexual enhancement surgery, the surgery today, like a century ago, continues to be performed as an effort to enable women to have a clitoral orgasm during penetrative sex.

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The best investment a rich man can do, is one into destruction. Destruction of the surrounding world, near and far, makes his wealth more valuable.

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